Types of Learning Disabilities | Pepperdine University

Types of Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities are defined as neurological conditions that interfere with a person's ability to store, process, or produce information (Learning Disabilities Association of America, 2013). Learning disabilities can affect reading, writing, speaking, spelling, math computation, reasoning, attention, memory, coordination, social skills and emotional maturity. Learning disabilities are not a result of emotional disorders, cultural differences, or lack of educational opportunities.

Types of Learning Disabilities

Input:

  • Auditory Processing Disorder: difficulty recognizing subtle differences between sounds in words
  • Auditory Sequencing Deficit: inability to hear sounds in the correct order
  • Auditory Figure-Ground Deficit: inability to distinguish one sound among others
  • Central Auditory Processing Deficit: difficulty processing and remembering oral language-related tasks
  • Dyslexia: language disorder interfering with the spoken or written word
  • Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit: frequent letter reversal, difficulty copying accurately, frequent eye pain or itch, often loses place while reading, and/or struggles with fine motor tasks such as cutting, drawing, etc.

Output:

  • Language Disorders (Aphasia/Dysphasia): trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension; trouble with expressive language abilities
  • Dysphasia: disorder affecting word retrieval or fluency when speaking or understanding
  • Dysgraphia: writing disorder affecting production of the written word graphically or syntactically

Integration (Executive Function):

  • Working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory affected.
  • Dyscalculia: disorder affecting mathematical concepts or computation
  • Organization: An individual might have difficulty organizing materials and assignments.
  • Non-Verbal Learning Disorders: trouble with nonverbal cues (e.g. body language), poor coordination, visual-spatial-fine and/or gross motor integration.